Evacuation


Nobody expects an emergency or disaster – especially one that affects them, their employees, and their business personally. Yet the simple truth is that emergencies and disasters can strike anyone, anytime, and anywhere. We can not plan for an emergency or disaster, but we can prepare ourselves for any such situations.

This project is designed to help, the designer, plan for that possibility. The best way to protect yourself, your workers, and your business is to expect the unexpected and develop a well-thoughtout emergency action plan to guide you when immediate action is necessary.

Fire Effects on Human Evacuation Time                                 

Fire effects are crucial in the evacuation procedure as fire and its products can severely impair the evacuees and even cause total incapacitation or fatalities. Therefore, the assessment of these effects on the humans is vital from the human safety point of view. Generally speaking, when evaluating the consequences of fire effluent to human life, the crucial criterion for life safety is that the time available for escape should be greater than the time required. The time available for escape is the interval between the time of ignition and the time after which conditions become untenable such that occupants can no longer take effective action to accomplish their own escape. Untenable conditions during fires may result from:

  • Inhalation of ashpyxiant gases, which may cause loss of consciousness and ultimately death due to hypoxic effects, particularly on the central nervous and cardiovascular systems
  • Exposure to radiant and convective heat
  • Visual obscuration due to smoke

The above represent the fire hazards and can be imported and distributed in time and space in this project as explicit semantic information for the humans. These include concentrations of CO, CO2, and O2, as well as temperature, radiant heat flux and optical density directly affecting the awareness and walking speed of the evacuee, at each time step.

Calculation of Total Evacuation Time during congestion and panic situations

The best way to prepare an emergency is to respond before it happens. Few people can think clearly and logically in a crisis, so it is important to do so in advance, when you have time to be thorough.

In Indian where 1.21 billion live, here stampede in panic situations can cause major disaster. For example every year many people die due to stampede in sabarimala, this is most common in shopping malls and cinema theater also. This project helps in finding the congestion region in our design and there by planning our evacuation timely. 

In this project each individual human, whose movement is treated by an
equation of motion. This approach allows each human to have its own personal properties and escape strategies. Humans experience contact forces and moments as well as psychological and motive forces and moments. The resulting equations of motions for the translational and rotational degrees of freedom are solved using the methods of dissipative particle dynamics. Thus, the model uses continuous time and space to track the trajectories of the humans. By allowing the

 modelling of high crowd density situations and the interaction between evacuation simulations. Some social interactions among the humans are introduced in this project. A reaction function model is used to select the exit routes.

Human Evacuation Simulation Results